|The agency that oversees the data protection of EU agencies has laid out its view on how they should comply with the GDPR after the EU-US Privacy Shield.|
The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) has published a strategy detailing how European Union (EU) agencies and bodies should comply with the Court of Justice of the European Union’s (CJEU) ruling that struck down the EU-United States (U.S.) Privacy Shield (aka Schrems II) and threw into question the compliance of Standard Contractual Clauses (SCC) with EU law and the General Protection Data Regulation (GDPR). The EDPS has already started working with EU Institutions’, bodies, offices and agencies (EUIs) on the process of determining if their transfers of the personal data of people in the EU to the U.S. meets the CJEU’s judgement.
The EDPS makes clear most of the transfers by EUIs to the U.S. are on account of using U.S. information and communications technology (ICT) products and services, meaning U.S. multinationals like Microsoft, Google, and others. The EDPS has proposed a strategy that would first identify risks and then move to address them. It bears stressing that this strategy applies only to EUIs and not private sector controllers, but it is likely the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) and EU DPAs will take notice of the EDPS’ strategy on how to comply with Schrems II. However, the EDPS acknowledges that it is obliged to follow the EDPB’s lead and vows to change its strategy upon issuance of EDPB guidance on Schrems II and SCC. And yet, the EDPS explained that EUIs will need to report back on how they are implementing the steps in the strategy, particularly on those ongoing transfers to countries like the U.S. that have inadequate data protection laws, those transfers that have been suspended, and any transfers being conducted per derogations in the GDPR. On the basis of this feedback, the EDPS will “establish long-term compliance” in 2021.
It seems a bit backwards for the EDPS to task the EUIs with determining which transfers under SCC may proceed under the GDPR when it might be a more efficient process for the EDPS to take on this job directly and rule on the ICT services and providers, permitting all EUIs to understand which comply with EU law and which do not. However, the EDPS is exploring the possibility of determining the sufficiency of data protection in other nations, most likely, first and foremost the U.S., and then working with EU stakeholders to coordinate compliance with the CJEU’s ruling and the GDPR.
The EDPS claimed the CJEU “clarified the roles and responsibilitiesof controllers, recipients of data outside of the European Economic Area (EEA) (data importers) and supervisory authorities…[and] ruled the following:
- The Court invalidated the Privacy Shield adequacy Decision and confirmed that the SCCs were valid providing that they include effective mechanisms to ensure compliance in practice with the “essentially equivalent” level of protection guaranteed within the EU by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Transfers of personal data pursuant to the SCCs are suspended or prohibited in the event of a breach of such clauses, or in case it is impossible to honour them.
- The SCCs for transfers may then require, depending on the prevailing position of a particular third country, the adoption of supplementary measures by the controller in order to ensure compliance with the level of protection guaranteed within the EU.
- In order to continue these data transfers, the Court stresses that before transferring personal data to a third country, it is the data exporters’ and data importers’ responsibility to assess whether the legislation of the third country of destination enables the data importer to comply with the guarantees provided through the transfer tools in place. If this is not the case, it is also the exporter and the importer’s duty to assess whether they can implement supplementary measures to ensure an essentially equivalent level of protection as provided by EU law. Should data exporters, after taking into account the circumstances of the transfer and possible supplementary measures, conclude that appropriate safeguards cannot be ensured, they are required to suspend or terminate the transfer of personal data. In case the exporter intends nevertheless to continue the transfer of personal data, they must notify their competent SA.
- The competent supervisory authority is required to suspend or prohibit a transfer of personal data to a third country pursuant to the SCCs if, when considering the circumstances of that transfer, those clauses are not or cannot be complied with in the third country of destination and the protection of the data transferred under EU law cannot be ensured by other means.
The EDPS’ report on the 2017 survey entitled, Measuring compliance with data protection rules in EU institutions, provides evidence that there has been a significant rise in the number of transfers related to the core business of EUIs in recent years. This number is even higher now, due to the increased use of ICT services and social media. The EDPS’ own-initiative investigation into the use of Microsoft products and services by EUIs and subsequent recommendations in that regard confirms the importance to ensure a level of protection that is essentially equivalent as the one guaranteed within the EU, as provided by relevant data protection laws, to be interpreted in accordance with the EU Charter. In this context, the EDPS has already flagged a number of linked issues concerning sub-processors, data location, international transfers and the risk of unlawful disclosure of data – issues that the EUIs were unable to control and ensure proper safeguards to protect data that left the EU/EEA. The issues we raised in our investigation report are consistent with the concerns expressed in the Court’s Judgment, which we are assessing in relation to any processor agreed to by EUIs.
Regarding data flows to the U.S. quite possibly in violation of the GDPR and Schrems II, the EDPS:
- Moreover, a majority of data flows to processors most probably happen because EUIs use service providers that are either based in the U.S. or that use sub-processors based in the U.S., in particular for ICT services, which fall under the scope of U.S. surveillance laws. Such companies have primarily relied on the Privacy Shield adequacy Decision to transfer personal data to the U.S. and the use of SCCs as a secondary measure.
- Therefore, the present Strategy emphasizes the priority to address transfers of data by EUIs or on their behalf in the context of controller to process or contract and/or processor to sub-processor contracts, in particular towards the United States.
The EDPS is calling for “a twofold approach as the most appropriate:
(1) Identify urgent compliance and/or enforcement actions through a risk based approach for transfers towards the U.S. presenting high risks for data subjects and in parallel
(2) provide guidance and pursue mid-term case-by-case EDPS compliance and or enforcement actions for all transfers towards the U.S. or other third countries.
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