Further Reading, Other Developments, and Coming Events (14 September)

Coming Events

  • The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 15 September titled “Stacking the Tech: Has Google Harmed Competition in Online Advertising?.” In their press release, Chair Mike Lee (R-UT) and Ranking Member Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) asserted:
    • Google is the dominant player in online advertising, a business that accounts for around 85% of its revenues and which allows it to monetize the data it collects through the products it offers for free. Recent consumer complaints and investigations by law enforcement have raised questions about whether Google has acquired or maintained its market power in online advertising in violation of the antitrust laws. News reports indicate this may also be the centerpiece of a forthcoming antitrust lawsuit from the U.S. Department of Justice. This hearing will examine these allegations and provide a forum to assess the most important antitrust investigation of the 21st century.
  • The United States’ Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) announced that its third annual National Cybersecurity Summit “will be held virtually as a series of webinars every Wednesday for four weeks beginning September 16 and ending October 7:”
    • September 16: Key Cyber Insights
    • September 23: Leading the Digital Transformation
    • September 30: Diversity in Cybersecurity
    • October 7: Defending our Democracy
    • One can register for the event here.
  • The House Homeland Security Committee will hold a hearing titled “Worldwide Threats to the Homeland” on 17 September with the following witnesses:
    • Chad Wolf, Department of Homeland Security
    • Christopher Wray, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Christopher Miller, Director, National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
  • On 17 September, the House Energy and Commerce Committee’s Communications & technology Subcommittee will hold a hearing titled “Trump FCC: Four Years of Lost Opportunities.”
  • The House Armed Services Committee’s Intelligence and Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee will hold a hearing’ titled “Interim Review of the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence Effort and Recommendations” with these witnesses:
    • Dr. Eric Schmidt , Chairman, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence 
    • HON Robert Work, Vice Chairman, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence, HON Mignon Clyburn, Commissioner, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence 
    • Dr. José-Marie Griffiths, Commissioner, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence
  • On 22 September, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) will hold a public workshop “to examine the potential benefits and challenges to consumers and competition raised by data portability.” The agency has released its agenda and explained:
    • The workshop will also feature four panel discussions that will focus on: case studies on data portability rights in the European Union, India, and California; case studies on financial and health portability regimes; reconciling the benefits and risks of data portability; and the material challenges and solutions to realizing data portability’s potential.
  • The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 30 September titled “Oversight of the Enforcement of the Antitrust Laws” with Federal Trade Commission Chair Joseph Simons and United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General Makan Delhrahim.
  • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will hold an open meeting on 30 September and has made available its agenda with these items:
    • Facilitating Shared Use in the 3.1-3.55 GHz Band. The Commission will consider a Report and Order that would remove the existing non-federal allocations from the 3.3-3.55 GHz band as an important step toward making 100 megahertz of spectrum in the 3.45-3.55 GHz band available for commercial use, including 5G, throughout the contiguous United States. The Commission will also consider a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would propose to add a co-primary, non-federal fixed and mobile (except aeronautical mobile) allocation to the 3.45-3.55 GHz band as well as service, technical, and competitive bidding rules for flexible-use licenses in the band. (WT Docket No. 19-348)
    • Expanding Access to and Investment in the 4.9 GHz Band. The Commission will consider a Sixth Report and Order that would expand access to and investment in the 4.9 GHz (4940-4990 MHz) band by providing states the opportunity to lease this spectrum to commercial entities, electric utilities, and others for both public safety and non-public safety purposes. The Commission also will consider a Seventh Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would propose a new set of licensing rules and seek comment on ways to further facilitate access to and investment in the band. (WP Docket No. 07-100)
    • Improving Transparency and Timeliness of Foreign Ownership Review Process. The Commission will consider a Report and Order that would improve the timeliness and transparency of the process by which it seeks the views of Executive Branch agencies on any national security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade policy concerns related to certain applications filed with the Commission. (IB Docket No. 16-155)
    • Promoting Caller ID Authentication to Combat Spoofed Robocalls. The Commission will consider a Report and Order that would continue its work to implement the TRACED Act and promote the deployment of caller ID authentication technology to combat spoofed robocalls. (WC Docket No. 17-97)
    • Combating 911 Fee Diversion. The Commission will consider a Notice of Inquiry that would seek comment on ways to dissuade states and territories from diverting fees collected for 911 to other purposes. (PS Docket Nos. 20-291, 09-14)
    • Modernizing Cable Service Change Notifications. The Commission will consider a Report and Order that would modernize requirements for notices cable operators must provide subscribers and local franchising authorities. (MB Docket Nos. 19-347, 17-105)
    • Eliminating Records Requirements for Cable Operator Interests in Video Programming. The Commission will consider a Report and Order that would eliminate the requirement that cable operators maintain records in their online public inspection files regarding the nature and extent of their attributable interests in video programming services. (MB Docket No. 20-35, 17-105)
    • Reforming IP Captioned Telephone Service Rates and Service Standards. The Commission will consider a Report and Order, Order on Reconsideration, and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would set compensation rates for Internet Protocol Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS), deny reconsideration of previously set IP CTS compensation rates, and propose service quality and performance measurement standards for captioned telephone services. (CG Docket Nos. 13-24, 03-123)
    • Enforcement Item. The Commission will consider an enforcement action.

Other Developments

  • After Ireland’s Data Protection Commission (DPC) directed Facebook to stop transferring the personal data of European Union citizens to the United States (U.S.), the company filed suit in Ireland’s court to stop enforcement of the order and succeeded in staying the matter until the court rules on the merits of the challenge. Earlier this summer, the Court of Justice for the European Union (CJEU) struck down the adequacy decision for the agreement between the European Union (EU) and United States (U.S.) that had provided the easiest means to transfer the personal data of EU citizens to the U.S. for processing under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (i.e. the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield). In the case known as Schrems II, the CJEU also cast doubt on whether standard contractual clauses (SCC) used to transfer personal data o the U.S. would pass muster given the grounds for finding the Privacy Shield inadequate: the U.S.’s surveillance regime and lack of meaningful redress for EU citizens. Consequently, it has appeared as if data protection authorities throughout the EU would need to revisit SCCs for transfers to the U.S., and it appears the DPC was looking to stop Facebook from using its SCC. Facebook is apparently arguing in its suit that it will suffer “extremely significant adverse effects” if the DPC’s decision is implemented.
  • In a related development, the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) has established “a taskforce to look into complaints filed in the aftermath of the CJEU Schrems II judgement.” The EDPB noted the 101 identical complaints “lodged with EEA Data Protection Authorities against several controllers in the European Economic Area (EEA) member states regarding their use of Google/Facebook services which involve the transfer of personal data.” The Board added “[s]pecifically the complainants, represented by the NGO NOYB, claim that Google/Facebook transfer personal data to the U.S. relying on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield or Standard Contractual Clauses and that according to the recent CJEU judgment in case C-311/18 the controller is unable to ensure an adequate protection of the complainants’ personal data.” The EDPB claimed “[t]he taskforce will analyse the matter and ensure a close cooperation among the members of the Board…[and] [t]his taskforce will prepare recommendations to assist controllers and processors with their duty to identify and implement appropriate supplementary measures to ensure adequate protection when transferring data to third countries.” EDPB Chair Andrea Jelinek cautioned “the implications of the judgment are wide-ranging, and the contexts of data transfers to third countries very diverse…[and] [t]herefore, there cannot be a one-size-fits-all, quick fix solution.” She added “[e]ach organisation will need to evaluate its own data processing operations and transfers and take appropriate measures.”
  • An Australian court ruled against Facebook in its efforts to dismiss a suit brought against the company for its role in retaining and providing personal data to Cambridge Analytica. A Federal Court of Australia dismissed Facebook’s filings to reverse a previous ruling that allowed the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner (OAIC) to sue Facebook’s United States and Irish entities.
    • In March, the OAIC filed suit in federal court in Australia, alleging the two companies transgressed the privacy rights of 311,127 Australians under Australia’s Privacy Act. The two companies could face liability as high as $1.7 million ASD per violation.
    • In its November 2018 report to Parliament titled “Investigation into the use of data analytics in political campaigns”, the ICO explained
      • One key strand of our investigation involved allegations that an app, ultimately referred to as ‘thisisyourdigitallife’, was developed by Dr Aleksandr Kogan and his company Global Science Research (GSR) in order to harvest the data of up to 87 million global Facebook users, including one million in the UK. Some of this data was then used by Cambridge Analytica, to target voters during the 2016 US Presidential campaign process.
    • In its July 2018 report titled “Democracy disrupted? Personal information and political influence,” the ICO explained
      • The online targeted advertising model used by Facebook is very complex, and we believe a high level of transparency in relation to political advertising is vital. This is a classic big-data scenario: understanding what data is going into the system; how users’ actions on Facebook are determining what interest groups they are placed in; and then the rules that are fed into any dynamic algorithms that enable organisations to target individuals with specific adverts and messaging.
      • Our investigation found significant fair-processing concerns both in terms of the information available to users about the sources of the data that are being used to determine what adverts they see and the nature of the profiling taking place. There were further concerns about the availability and transparency of the controls offered to users over what ads and messages they receive. The controls were difficult to find and were not intuitive to the user if they wanted to control the political advertising they received. Whilst users were informed that their data would be used for commercial advertising, it was not clear that political advertising would take place on the platform.
      • The ICO also found that despite a significant amount of privacy information and controls being made available, overall they did not effectively inform the users about the likely uses of their personal information. In particular, more explicit information should have been made available at the first layer of the privacy policy. The user tools available to block or remove ads were also complex and not clearly available to users from the core pages they would be accessing. The controls were also limited in relation to political advertising.
  • The Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC) announced it “will be examining the experiences of Australian consumers, developers, suppliers and others in a new report scrutinising mobile app stores” according to the agency’s press release. The ACCC’s inquiry comes at the same time regulators in the United States and the European Union are investigating the companies for their app store practices, which could lead to enforcement actions. The ACCC is also looking to institute a code that would require Google and Facebook to pay Australian media outlets for content used on their platforms. The ACCC stated that “[i]ssues to be examined include the use and sharing of data by apps, the extent of competition between Google and Apple’s app stores, and whether more pricing transparency is needed in Australia’s mobile apps market.” The ACCC added:
    • Consumers are invited to share their experiences with buying and using apps through a short survey. The ACCC has also released an issues paper seeking views and feedback from app developers and suppliers.
    • In the issues paper, the ACCC explained “[p]otential outcomes” could be:
      • findings regarding structural, competitive or behavioural issues affecting the supply of apps
      • increased information about competition, pricing and other practices in the supply of apps and on app marketplaces
      • ACCC action to address any conduct that raises concerns under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, and
      • recommendations to the Government for legislative reform to address systemic issues.
  • The Government Accountability Office (GAO) found an agency has implemented spotty, incomplete privacy measures in using facial recognition technology (FRT) at ports of entry.
    • The House Homeland Security and Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs asked the GAO
      • to review United States (U.S.) Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) facial recognition technology capabilities for traveler identity verification. This report addresses (1) the status of CBP’s testing and deployment of facial recognition technology at ports of entry, (2) the extent to which CBP’s use of facial recognition technology has incorporated privacy principles consistent with applicable laws and policies, (3) the extent to which CBP has assessed the accuracy and performance of its facial recognition capabilities at ports of entry, and (4) the status of TSA’s testing of facial recognition capabilities and the extent to which TSA’s facial recognition pilot tests incorporated privacy principles.
    • The GAO noted:
      • Most recently, in 2017, we reported that CBP had made progress in testing biometric exit capabilities, including facial recognition technology, but challenges continued to affect CBP’s efforts to develop and implement a biometric exit system, such as differences in the logistics and infrastructure among ports of entry. As we previously reported, CBP had tested various biometric technologies in different locations to determine which type of technology could be deployed on a large scale without disrupting legitimate travel and trade, while still meeting its mandate to implement a biometric entry-exit system. Based on the results of its testing, CBP concluded that facial recognition technology was the most operationally feasible and traveler-friendly option for a comprehensive biometric solution. Since then, CBP has prioritized testing and deploying facial recognition technology at airports (referred to as air exit), with seaports and land ports of entry to follow. These tests and deployments are part of CBP’s Biometric Entry-Exit Program.
      • As part of TSA’s mission to protect the nation’s transportation systems and to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce, TSA has been exploring facial recognition technology for identity verification at airport checkpoints. Since 2017, TSA has conducted a series of pilot tests—some in partnership with CBP—to assess the feasibility of using facial recognition technology to automate traveler identity verification at airport security checkpoints. In April 2018, TSA signed a policy memorandum with CBP on the development and implementation of facial recognition capabilities at airports.
    • The GAO made recommendations to CBP:
      • The Commissioner of CBP should ensure that the Biometric Entry-Exit Program’s privacy notices contain complete and current information, including all of the locations where facial recognition is used and how travelers can request to opt out as appropriate. (Recommendation 1)
      • The Commissioner of CBP should ensure that the Biometric Entry-Exit Program’s privacy signage is consistently available at all locations where CBP is using facial recognition. (Recommendation 2)
      • The Commissioner of CBP should direct the Biometric Entry-Exit Program to develop and implement a plan to conduct privacy audits of its commercial partners’, contractors’, and vendors’ use of personally identifiable information. (Recommendation 3)
      • The Commissioner of CBP should develop and implement a plan to ensure that the biometric air exit capability meets its established photo capture requirement. (Recommendation 4)
      • The Commissioner of CBP should develop a process by which Biometric Entry-Exit program officials are alerted when the performance of air exit facial recognition falls below established thresholds. (Recommendation 5)
  • The United States (U.S.) Agency for Global Media (USAGM) is being sued by an entity it funds and oversees because
    • Previously, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia enjoined USAGM from “taking any action to remove or replace any officers or directors of the OTF,” pending the outcome of the suit which is being expedited.
    • Additionally, USAGM CEO and Chair of the Board Michael Pack is being accused in two different letters of seeking to compromise the integrity and independence of two organizations he oversees. There have been media accounts of the Trump Administration’s remaking of USAGM in ways critics contend are threatening the mission and effectiveness of the Open Technology Fund (OTF), a U.S. government non-profit designed to help dissidents and endangered populations throughout the world. The head of the OTF has been removed, evoking the ire of Members of Congress, and other changes have been implemented that are counter to the organization’s mission. Likewise, there are allegations that politically-motivated policy changes seek to remake the Voice of America (VOA) into a less independent entity.
      • In a letter to Pack, OTF argued that a number of recent actions Pack has undertaken have violated “firewall protections” in the organization’s grant agreement. They further argue that Pack is conflicted and should turn over the investigation to the United States (U.S.) Department of State’s Office of the Inspector General (OIG). OTF alleged the following:
        • 1. Attempts to compromise and undermine OTF’s independence: USAGM has repeatedly attempted to undermine OTF’s independence over the past several months.
        • 2. Attempts to compromise and undermine integrity: USAGM has also attempted to undermine the integrity of OTF by publicly making numerous false and misleading claims about OTF to the internet freedom community, the general public, and even to Congress.
        • 3. Attempts to compromise and undermine security: USAGM has attempted to undermine the security of OTF, our staff, and our project partners -many of whom operate in highly sensitive environments -by
          • 1) attempting to gain unauthorized and unsupervised access to our office space and
          • 2) by requesting vast amounts of sensitive information and documentation with no apparent grant-related purpose, and no regard for the security of that information and documentation
        • 4. Attempts to compromise and undermine privacy: Closely related to USAGM’s attempts to undermine OTF’s security, USAGM has also attempted to undermine the privacy of OTF’s staff and partners by requesting that OTF provide Personally Identifiable Information(PII) without a clearly articulated grant-related purpose, and with no guarantee that the PII will be handled in a secure manner.
        • 5. Attempts to compromise and undermine effectiveness: USAGM’s actions have undermined the effectiveness of OTF by:
          • 1) freezing and subsequently withholding $19,181,791 in congressionally appropriated funding from OTF, forcing OTF to issue stop-work orders to 49 of our 60 internet freedom projects;
          • 2) providing unjustified, duplicative, overbroad, and unduly burdensome requests for information and documentation, without any clear grant-related purpose, and with clearly unreasonable deadlines;
          • 3) attempting to divert and redirect funding obligated by USAGM to OTF in an effort to duplicate OTF’s work; and
          • 4) threatening to terminate OTF’s Grant Agreement.
    • OTF asserted
      • These actions individually serve to seriously undermine OTF’s organizational and programmatic effectiveness. In their combined aggregate they threaten to dismantle OTF’s basic ability to effectively carry out its congressionally mandated mission to the detriment of USAGM and the cause of internet freedom globally
    • A group of VOA journalists wrote the entity’s acting director, asserting that Pack’s actions risk crippling programs and projects for some countries that are considered national security priorities.” They added:
      • He has ordered the firing of contract journalists, with no valid reason, by cancelling their visas, forcing them back to home countries where the lives of some of them may be in jeopardy. Now the purge appears to be expanding to include U.S. permanent residents and even U.S. citizens, with Mr. Pack recklessly expressing that being a journalist is “a great cover for a spy.
  • The Cyberspace Solarium Commission (CSC) issued its latest white paper to address a continuing problem for the United States’ government: how to attract or train a sufficient cyber workforce when private sector salaries are generally better. In “Growing A Stronger Federal Cyber Workforce,” the CSC claimed “Currently more than one in three public-sector cyber jobs sits open…[and] [f]illing these roles has been a persistent and intractable problem over the past decade, in large part due to a lack of coordination and leadership.” The CSC averred “[i]n the context of this pervasive challenge, the fundamental purpose of this paper is to outline the elements required for a coherent strategy that enables substantive and coordinated investment in cyber workforce development and calls for a sustained investment in that strategy.” The CSC then proceeds to lay out “five elements to guide development of a federal cyber workforce strategy:
    • Organize: Federal departments and agencies must have flexible tools for organizing and managing their workforce that can adapt to each organization’s individual mission while also providing coherence across the entirety of the federal government. To appropriately organize the federal cyber workforce, the CSC recommends properly identifying and utilizing cyber-specific occupational classifications to allow more tailored workforce policies, building a federal cyber service to provide clear and agile hiring authorities and other personnel management tools, and establishing coordination structures to provide clear leadership for federal workforce development e orts.
    • Recruit: Federal leaders must focus on the programs that make public service an attractive prospect to talented individuals. In many ways, the federal government’s greatest tool for recruitment is the mission and unique learning opportunities inherent in federal work. To capitalize on these advantages, the government should invest in existing programs such as CyberCorps: Scholarship for Service and the Centers of Academic Excellence, while also working to mitigate recruitment barriers that stem from the personnel security clearance process.
    • Develop: e federal government, like all cyber employers, cannot expect every new employee to have hands-on experience, a four-year degree, and a list of industry certifications. Rather, the federal government will be stronger if it draws from a broad array of educational backgrounds and creates opportunities for employees to gain knowledge and experience as they work. is e ort will call for many innovative approaches, among which the Commission particularly recommends apprenticeship programs and upskilling opportunities to support cyber employee development.
    • Retain: Federal leaders should take a nuanced view of retention, recognizing that enabling talent to move flexibly between the public and private sectors enables a stronger cyber workforce overall. However, federal employers can take steps to encourage their employees to increase the time they spend in public service. Improving pay flexibility is a major consideration, but continuing the development of career pathways and providing interesting career development opportunities like rotational and exchange programs also can be critical. Of particular note, federal employers can increase retention of underrepresented groups through the removal of inequities and barriers to advancement in the workplace.
    • Stimulate growth: e federal government cannot simply recruit a larger share of the existing national talent pool. Rather, leaders must take steps to grow the talent pool itself in order to increase the numbers of those available for federal jobs. To promote growth of the talent pool nationwide, the federal government must first coordinate government efforts working toward this goal. Executive branch and congressional leaders should also invest in measures to promote diversity across the national workforce and incentivize research to provide a greater empirical understanding of cyber workforce dynamics. Finally, federal leaders must work to increase the military cyber workforce, which has a significant impact on the national cyber workforce because it serves as both a source and an employer of cyber talent.

Further Reading

  • Oracle reportedly wins deal for TikTok’s US operations as ‘trusted tech partner’” By Tom Warren and Nick Statt – The Verge. ByteDance chose Oracle over Microsoft but not for buying its operations in the United States (U.S.), Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Now, Oracle is proposing to be TikTok’s trusted technology partner, which seems to be hosting TikTok’s operations in the U.S. and managing its data as a means of allaying the concerns of the U.S. government about access by the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
  • Why Do Voting Machines Break on Election Day?” By Adrianne Jeffries – The Markup. This piece seeks to debunk the hype by explaining that most voting issues are minor and easily fixed, which may well be a welcome message in the United States (U.S.) given the lies and fretting about the security and accuracy of the coming election. Nonetheless, the mechanical and systemic problems encountered by some Americans do speak to the need to update voting laws and standards. Among other problems are the high barriers to entry for firms making and selling voting machines.
  • Twitter steps up its fight against election misinformation” By Elizabeth Dwoskin – The Washington Post. Twitter and Google announced policy changes like Facebook did last week to help tamp down untrue claims and lies about voting and elections in the United States. Twitter will take a number of different approaches to handling lies and untrue assertions. If past is prologue, President Donald Trump may soon look to test the limits of this policy as he did shortly after Facebook announced its policy changes. Google will adjust searches on election day to place respected, fact oriented organizations at the top of search results.
  • China’s ‘hybrid war’: Beijing’s mass surveillance of Australia and the world for secrets and scandal” By Andrew Probyn and Matthew Doran – ABC News; “Zhenhua Data leak: personal details of millions around world gathered by China tech company” By Daniel Hurst in Canberra, Lily Kuo in Beijing and Charlotte Graham-McLay in Wellington – The Guardian. A massive database leaked to to an American shows the breadth and range of information collected by a company in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) alleged to be working with the country’s military and security services. Zhenhua Data is denying any wrongdoing or anything untoward, but the database contains information on 2.4 million people, most of whom live in western nations in positions of influence and power such as British and Australian prime Ministers Boris Johnson and Scott Morrison. Academics claim this sort of compilation of information from public and private sources is unprecedented and would allow the PRC to run a range of influence operations.
  • Europe Feels Squeeze as Tech Competition Heats Up Between U.S. and China” By Steven Erlanger and Adam Satariano – The New York Times. Structural challenges in the European Union (EU) and a lack of large technology companies have left the EU is a delicate position. It seeks to be the world’s de facto regulator but is having trouble keeping with the United States and the People’s Republic of China, the two dominant nations in technology.

© Michael Kans, Michael Kans Blog and michaelkans.blog, 2019-2020. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Michael Kans, Michael Kans Blog, and michaelkans.blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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