Here is today’s Further Reading, Other Developments, and Coming Events.
- The United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission will hold a hearing on 9 September on “U.S.-China Relations in 2020: Enduring Problems and Emerging Challenges” to “evaluate key developments in China’s economy, military capabilities, and foreign relations, during 2020.”
- On 10 September, the General Services Administration (GSA) will have a webinar to discuss implementation of Section 889 of the “John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2019” (P.L. 115-232) that bars the federal government and its contractors from buying the equipment and services from Huawei, ZTE, and other companies from the People’s Republic of China.
- The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will hold a forum on 5G Open Radio Access Networks on 14 September. The FCC asserted
- Chairman [Ajit] Pai will host experts at the forefront of the development and deployment of open, interoperable, standards-based, virtualized radio access networks to discuss this innovative new approach to 5G network architecture. Open Radio Access Networks offer an alternative to traditional cellular network architecture and could enable a diversity in suppliers, better network security, and lower costs.
- The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 15 September titled “Stacking the Tech: Has Google Harmed Competition in Online Advertising?.” In their press release, Chair Mike Lee (R-UT) and Ranking Member Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) asserted:
- Google is the dominant player in online advertising, a business that accounts for around 85% of its revenues and which allows it to monetize the data it collects through the products it offers for free. Recent consumer complaints and investigations by law enforcement have raised questions about whether Google has acquired or maintained its market power in online advertising in violation of the antitrust laws. News reports indicate this may also be the centerpiece of a forthcoming antitrust lawsuit from the U.S. Department of Justice. This hearing will examine these allegations and provide a forum to assess the most important antitrust investigation of the 21st century.
- The United States’ Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) announced that its third annual National Cybersecurity Summit “will be held virtually as a series of webinars every Wednesday for four weeks beginning September 16 and ending October 7:”
- September 16: Key Cyber Insights
- September 23: Leading the Digital Transformation
- September 30: Diversity in Cybersecurity
- October 7: Defending our Democracy
- One can register for the event here.
- On 22 September, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) will hold a public workshop “to examine the potential benefits and challenges to consumers and competition raised by data portability.”
- The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 30 September titled ““Oversight of the Enforcement of the Antitrust Laws” with Federal Trade Commission Chair Joseph Simons and United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General Makan Delhrahim.
- The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will hold an open meeting on 30 September, but an agenda is not available at this time.
- The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) announced a 15 and 16 September webinar to discuss its Draft Outline of Cybersecurity Profile for the Responsible Use of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Services. NIST stated it “seeks insight and feedback on this Annotated Outline to improve the PNT cybersecurity profile, which is scheduled for publication in February 2021…[and] [a]reas needing more input include feedback on the description of systems that use PNT services and the set of standards, guidelines, and practices addressing systems that use PNT services.” NIST explained that “[t]hrough the Profile development process, NIST will engage the public and private sectors on multiple occasions to include a request for information, participation in workshops, solicitation of feedback on this annotated outline, and public review and comment on the draft Profile.” The agency added “[t]he Profile development process is iterative and, in the end state, will identify and promote the responsible use of PNT services from a cybersecurity point of view.”
- In June, NIST released a request for information (RFI) “about public and private sector use of positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services, and standards, practices, and technologies used to manage cybersecurity risks, to systems, networks, and assets dependent on PNT services.” This RFI is being undertaken per direction in a February executive order (EO) to serve as the foundation for the Trump Administration’s efforts to lessen the reliance of United States’ (U.S.) critical infrastructure on current PNT systems and services. Specifically, the EO seeks to build U.S. capacity to meet and overcome potential disruption or manipulation of the PNT systems and services used by virtually every key sector of the public and private sectors of the U.S.
- NIST explained “Executive Order 13905, Strengthening National Resilience Through Responsible Use of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Services, was issued on February 12, 2020 and seeks to protect the national and economic security of the United States from disruptions to PNT services that are vital to the functioning of technology and infrastructure, including the electrical power grid, communications infrastructure and mobile devices, all modes of transportation, precision agriculture, weather forecasting, and emergency response.” The EO directed NIST “to develop and make available, to at least the appropriate agencies and private sector users, PNT profiles.” NIST said “[r]esponses to this RFI will inform NIST’s development of a PNT profile, using the NIST Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (NIST Cybersecurity Framework), that will enable the public and private sectors to identify systems, networks, and assets dependent on PNT services; identify appropriate PNT services; detect the disruption and manipulation of PNT services; and manage the associated cybersecurity risks to the systems, networks, and assets dependent on PNT services.”
- The EO defines the crucial term this RFI uses: “PNT profile” means a description of the responsible use of PNT services—aligned to standards, guidelines, and sector-specific requirements—selected for a particular system to address the potential disruption or manipulation of PNT services.
- In April, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) released a Congressionally required report, “Report on Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Backup and Complementary Capabilities to the Global Positioning System (GPS)” as required by Section 1618 of the “2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) (P.L. 114–328) that was due in December 2017. DHS offered “recommendations to address the nation’s PNT requirements and backup or complementary capability gaps.”
- Switzerland’s Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner (FDPIC) has reversed itself and decided that the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield does not provide adequate protection for Swiss citizens whose data is transferred for processing into the United States (U.S.) However, it does not appear that there will be any practical effect as of yet. The FDPIC determined that the agreement “does not provide an adequate level of protection for data transfer from Switzerland to the US pursuant to the Federal Act on Data Protection (FADP).” This decision comes two months after the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) struck down the European Union-U.S. Privacy Shield. The FDPIC noted this determination followed “his annual assessment of the Swiss-US Privacy Shield regime and recent rulings on data protection by the CJEU.” The FDPIC also issued a policy paper explaining the determination. The FDPIC added
- As a result of this assessment, which is based on Swiss law, the FDPIC has deleted the reference to ‘adequate data protection under certain conditions’ for the US in the FDPIC’s list of countries. Since the FDPIC’s assessment has no influence on the continued existence of the Privacy Shield regime, and those concerned can invoke the regime as long as it is not revoked by the US, the comments on the Privacy Shield in the list of countries will be retained in an adapted form.
- The United States Department of Defense (DOD) released its statutorily required annual report on the People’s Republic of China (PRC) that documented the rising power of the nation, especially with respect to cybersecurity and information warfare. The Pentagon noted
- 2020 marks an important year for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) as it works to achieve important modernization milestones ahead of the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) broader goal to transform China into a “moderately prosperous society” by the CCP’s centenary in 2021. As the United States continues to respond to the growing strategic challenges posed by the PRC, 2020 offers a unique opportunity to assess both the continuity and changes that have taken place in the PRC’s strategy and armed forces over the past two decades.
- Regarding Cyberwarfare, the DOD asserted
- The development of cyberwarfare capabilities is consistent with PLA writings, which identify Information Operations (IO) – comprising cyber, electronic, and psychological warfare – as integral to achieving information superiority and as an effective means for countering a stronger foe. China has publicly identified cyberspace as a critical domain for national security and declared its intent to expedite the development of its cyber forces.
- The PRC presents a significant, persistent cyber espionage and attack threat to military and critical infrastructure systems. China seeks to create disruptive and destructive effects—from denial-of- service attacks to physical disruptions of critical infrastructure— to shape decision-making and disrupt military operations in the initial stages of a conflict by targeting and exploiting perceived weaknesses of militarily superior adversaries. China is improving its cyberattack capabilities and has the ability to launch cyberattacks—such as disruption of a natural gas pipeline for days to weeks—in the United States.
- PLA writings note the effectiveness of IO and cyberwarfare in recent conflicts and advocate targeting C2 and logistics networks to affect an adversary’s ability to operate during the early stages of conflict. Authoritative PLA sources call for the coordinated employment of space, cyber, and EW as strategic weapons to “paralyze the enemy’s operational system of systems” and “sabotage the enemy’s war command system of systems” early in a conflict. Increasingly, the PLA considers cyber capabilities a critical component in its overall integrated strategic deterrence posture, alongside space and nuclear deterrence. PLA studies discuss using warning or demonstration strikes—strikes against select military, political, and economic targets with clear “awing effects”—as part of deterrence. Accordingly, the PLA probably seeks to use its cyberwarfare capabilities to collect data for intelligence and cyberattack purposes; to constrain an adversary’s actions by targeting network-based logistics, C2, communications, commercial activities, and civilian and defense critical infrastructure; or, to serve as a force-multiplier when coupled with kinetic attacks during armed conflict.
- The PLA’s ongoing structural reforms may further change how the PLA organizes and commands IO, particularly as the Strategic Support Force (SSF) evolves over time. By consolidating cyber and other IO-related elements, the SSF likely is generating synergies by combining national-level cyber reconnaissance, attack, and defense capabilities in its organization.
- The DOD also noted the PLA’s emphasis on intelligentized warfare:
- The PLA sees emerging technologies as driving a shift to “intelligentized” warfare from today’s “informatized” way of war. PLA strategists broadly describe intelligentized warfare as the operationalization of artificial intelligence (AI) and its enabling technologies, such as cloud computing, big data analytics, quantum information, and unmanned systems, for military applications. These technologies, according to PRC leaders—including Chairman Xi Jinping— represent a “Revolution in Military Affairs” for which China must undertake a whole-of-government approach to secure critical economic and military advantages against advanced militaries.
- The United States’ (U.S.) Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is proposing a rule “to amend DHS regulations concerning the use and collection of biometrics in the enforcement and administration of immigration laws by USCIS, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).”
- USCIS further explained:
- First, DHS proposes that any applicant, petitioner, sponsor, beneficiary, or individual filing or associated with an immigration benefit or request, including United States citizens, must appear for biometrics collection without regard to age unless DHS waives or exempts the biometrics requirement.
- Second, DHS proposes to authorize biometric collection, without regard to age, upon arrest of an alien for purposes of processing, care, custody, and initiation of removal proceedings.
- Third, DHS proposes to define the term biometrics.
- Fourth, this rule proposes to increase the biometric modalities that DHS collects, to include iris image, palm print, and voice print.
- Fifth, this rule proposes that DHS may require, request, or accept DNA test results, which include a partial DNA profile, to prove the existence of a claimed genetic relationship and that DHS may use and store DNA test results for the relevant adjudications or to perform any other functions necessary for administering and enforcing immigration and naturalization laws.
- Sixth, this rule would modify how VAWA and T nonimmigrant petitioners demonstrate good moral character, as well as remove the presumption of good moral character for those under the age of 14.
- Lastly, DHS proposes to further clarify the purposes for which biometrics are collected from individuals filing immigration applications or petitions, to include criminal history and national security background checks; identity enrollment, verification, and management; secure document production, and to administer and enforce immigration and naturalization laws.
- “State aid helps China tech leaders shrug off US sanctions” By Kenji Kawase – Nikkei Asian Review. A number of companies placed on the United States’ no-trade list have received generous subsidies from their government in Beijing. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) sees the health of a number of these companies as vital to its long term development and is willing to prop them up. Some companies have received multiples of their net profit to keep them afloat.
- “Facebook Says Trump’s Misleading Post About Mail-In Voting Is OK. Employees Say It’s Not.” By Craig Silverman and Ryan Mac – BuzzFeed News. There is more internal dissension at Facebook even after the company’s announcement it would not accept political advertising the last week of the election and correct misinformation about voting. Within hours of this policy change, President Donald Trump encouraged voters to possibly vote twice, which many Facebook employees saw as a violation of the new policy. The company disagreed and appended a claim from a bipartisan think tank study finding that mail-in voting is largely fraud free.
- “Why Facebook’s Blocking of New Political Ads May Fall Short” By Davey Alba and Sheera Frenkel – The New York Times. This piece explains in detail why Facebook’s new policy to combat political misinformation is likely to fall quite short of addressing the problem.
- “Student arrested for cyberattack against Miami schools used ‘easy to prevent’ program” By Colleen Wright and David Ovalle – Miami Herald. The United States’ fourth largest school district fell victim to a distributed denial of service attack launched by a 16-year-old student using more than a decade old tools downloaded from the internet. This unnamed hacker foiled the Miami-Dade school district’s first three days of online classes, raising questions about the cybersecurity of the school system if such an old attack succeeded so easily and how safe the personal information of students is in this school system and others around the country.
- “Trump and allies ratchet up disinformation efforts in late stage of campaign” By Ashley Parker – The Washington Post. It has been apparent for some that President Donald Trump and a number of his Republican allies are intentionally or recklessly spreading false information to try to help his campaign cover ground against frontrunner former Vice President Joe Biden. The goal is to so muddy the waters that the average person will neither be able to discern the truth of a claim not be concerned about doing so. This approach is the very same Russia’s leader Vladimir Putin has successfully executed in pushing his country into a post-truth world. Experts are warning that a continuation of this trend in the United States (U.S.) could wreak potentially irreparable harm.
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