Further Reading, Other Developments, and Coming Events ( 4 September)

Here is today’s Further Reading, Other Developments, and Coming Events.

Coming Events

  • The United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission will hold a hearing on 9 September on “U.S.-China Relations in 2020: Enduring Problems and Emerging Challenges” to “evaluate key developments in China’s economy, military capabilities, and foreign relations, during 2020.”
  • On 10 September, the General Services Administration (GSA) will have a webinar to discuss implementation of Section 889 of the “John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2019” (P.L. 115-232) that bars the federal government and its contractors from buying the equipment and services from Huawei, ZTE, and other companies from the People’s Republic of China.
  • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will hold a forum on 5G Open Radio Access Networks on 14 September. The FCC asserted
    • Chairman [Ajit] Pai will host experts at the forefront of the development and deployment of open, interoperable, standards-based, virtualized radio access networks to discuss this innovative new approach to 5G network architecture. Open Radio Access Networks offer an alternative to traditional cellular network architecture and could enable a diversity in suppliers, better network security, and lower costs.
  • The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 15 September titled “Stacking the Tech: Has Google Harmed Competition in Online Advertising?.” In their press release, Chair Mike Lee (R-UT) and Ranking Member Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) asserted:
    • Google is the dominant player in online advertising, a business that accounts for around 85% of its revenues and which allows it to monetize the data it collects through the products it offers for free. Recent consumer complaints and investigations by law enforcement have raised questions about whether Google has acquired or maintained its market power in online advertising in violation of the antitrust laws. News reports indicate this may also be the centerpiece of a forthcoming antitrust lawsuit from the U.S. Department of Justice. This hearing will examine these allegations and provide a forum to assess the most important antitrust investigation of the 21st century.
  • The United States’ Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) announced that its third annual National Cybersecurity Summit “will be held virtually as a series of webinars every Wednesday for four weeks beginning September 16 and ending October 7:”
    • September 16: Key Cyber Insights
    • September 23: Leading the Digital Transformation
    • September 30: Diversity in Cybersecurity
    • October 7: Defending our Democracy
    • One can register for the event here.
  • On 22 September, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) will hold a public workshop “to examine the potential benefits and challenges to consumers and competition raised by data portability.”
  • The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Antitrust, Competition Policy & Consumer Rights Subcommittee will hold a hearing on 30 September titled ““Oversight of the Enforcement of the Antitrust Laws” with Federal Trade Commission Chair Joseph Simons and United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General Makan Delhrahim.
  • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will hold an open meeting on 30 September, but an agenda is not available at this time.

Other Developments

  • The United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Election Assistance Commission (EAC) “released the Election Risk Profile Tool, a user-friendly assessment tool to equip election officials and federal agencies in prioritizing and managing cybersecurity risks to the Election Infrastructure Subsector.” The agencies stated “[t]he new tool is designed to help state and local election officials understand the range of risks they face and how to prioritize mitigation efforts…[and] also addresses areas of greatest risk, ensures technical cybersecurity assessments and services are meeting critical needs, and provides a sound analytic foundation for managing election security risk with partners at the federal, state and local level.”
    • CISA and the EAC explained “[t]he Election Risk Profile Tool:
      • Is a user-friendly assessment tool for state and local election officials to develop a high-level risk profile across a jurisdiction’s specific infrastructure components;
      • Provides election officials a method to gain insights into their cybersecurity risk and prioritize mitigations;
      • Accepts inputs of a jurisdiction’s specific election infrastructure configuration; and
      • Outputs a tailored risk profile for jurisdictions, which identifies specific areas of highest risk and recommends associated mitigation measures that the jurisdiction could implement to address the risk areas.
  • The cybersecurity agencies of the Five Eyes nations have released a Joint Cybersecurity Advisory: Technical Approaches to Uncovering and Remediating Malicious Activity that “highlights technical approaches to uncovering malicious activity and includes mitigation steps according to best practices.” The agencies asserted “[t]he purpose of this report is to enhance incident response among partners and network administrators along with serving as a playbook for incident investigation.”
    • The Australian Cyber Security Centre, Canada’s Communications Security Establishment, the United States’ Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre, and New Zealand’s National Cyber Security Centre and Computer Emergency Response Team summarized the key takeaways from the Joint Advisory:
      • When addressing potential incidents and applying best practice incident response procedures:
      • First, collect and remove for further analysis:
        • Relevant artifacts,
        • Logs, and
        • Data.
      • Next, implement mitigation steps that avoid tipping off the adversary that their presence in the network has been discovered.
      • Finally, consider soliciting incident response support from a third-party IT security organization to:
        • Provide subject matter expertise and technical support to the incident response,
        • Ensure that the actor is eradicated from the network, and
        • Avoid residual issues that could result in follow-up compromises once the incident is closed.
  • The United States’ (U.S.) Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) signed an Antitrust Cooperation Framework with their counterpart agencies from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, And United Kingdom. The Multilateral Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Framework for Competition Authorities (Framework) “aims to strengthen cooperation between the signatories, and provides the basis for a series of bilateral agreements among them focused on investigative assistance, including sharing confidential information and cross-border evidence gathering.” Given that a number of large technology companies are under investigation in the U.S., the European Union (EU) and elsewhere, signaling a shift in how technology multinationals are being viewed, this agreement may enable cross-border efforts to collectively address alleged abuses. However, the Framework “is not intended to be legally binding and does not give rise to legal rights or obligations under domestic or international law.” The Framework provides:
    • Recognising that the Participants can benefit by sharing their experience in developing, applying, and enforcing Competition Laws and competition policies, the Participants intend to cooperate and provide assistance, including by:
      • a) exchanging information on the development of competition issues, policies and laws;
      • b) exchanging experience on competition advocacy and outreach, including to consumers, industry, and government;
      • c) developing agency capacity and effectiveness by providing advice or training in areas of mutual interest, including through the exchange of officials and through experience-sharing events;
      • d) sharing best practices by exchanging information and experiences on matters of mutual interest, including enforcement methods and priorities; and
      • e) collaborating on projects of mutual interest, including via establishing working groups to consider specific issues.
  • Dynasplint Systems alerted the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that it suffered a breach affecting more than 100,000 people earlier this year. HHS’ Office of Civil Rights (OCR) is investigating possible violations of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations regarding the safeguarding of patients’ health information. If Dynasplint failed to properly secure patient information or its systems, OCR could levy a multimillion dollar fine for the size breach. For example, in late July, OCR fined a company over $1 million for the theft of an unencrypted laptop that exposed the personal information of a little more than 20,000 people.
    • Dynasplint, a Maryland manufacturer of range of motion splints, explained:
      • On June 4, 2020, the investigation determined that certain information was accessed without authorization during the incident.
      • The information may have included names, addresses, dates of birth, Social Security numbers, and medical information.
      • Dynasplint Systems reported this matter to the FBI and will provide whatever cooperation is necessary to hold perpetrators accountable.
  • The California Legislature has sent two bills to Governor Gavin Newsom (D) that would change how technology is regulated in the state, including one that would alter the “California Consumer Privacy Act” (AB 375) (CCPA) if the “California Privacy Rights Act” (CPRA) (Ballot Initiative 24) is not enacted by voters in the November election. The two bills are:
    • AB 1138 would amend the recently effective “Parent’s Accountability and Child Protection Act” would bar those under the age of 13 from opening a social media account unless the platform got the explicit consent from their parents. Moreover, “[t]he bill would deem a business to have actual knowledge of a consumer’s age if it willfully disregards the consumer’s age.”
    •  AB 1281 would extend the carveout for employers to comply with the CCPA from 1 January 2021 to 1 January 2022. The CCPA “exempts from its provisions certain information collected by a business about a natural person in the course of the natural person acting as a job applicant, employee, owner, director, officer, medical staff member, or contractor, as specified…[and also] exempts from specified provisions personal information reflecting a written or verbal communication or a transaction between the business and the consumer, if the consumer is a natural person who is acting as an employee, owner, director, officer, or contractor of a company, partnership, sole proprietorship, nonprofit, or government agency and whose communications or transaction with the business occur solely within the context of the business conducting due diligence regarding, or providing or receiving a product or service to or from that company, partnership, sole proprietorship, nonprofit, or government agency.” AB 1281 “shall become operative only” if the CPRA is not approved by voters.
  • Senators Senator Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV), Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) and Jerry Moran (R-KS) have written “a letter to Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Chairman Joseph Simons urging the FTC to take action to address the troubling data collection and sharing practices of the mobile application (app) Premom” and “to request information on the steps that the FTC plans to take to address this issue.” They asserted:
    • A recent investigation from the International Digital Accountability Council (IDAC) indicated that Premom may have engaged in deceptive consumer data collection and processing, and that there may be material differences between Premom’s stated privacy policies and its actual data-sharing practices. Most troubling, the investigation found that Premom shared its users’ data without their consent.
    • Moore Capito, Klobuchar, and Moran stated “[i]n light of these concerning reports, and given the critical role that the FTC plays in enforcing federal laws that protect consumer privacy and data under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act and other sector specific laws, we respectfully ask that you respond to the following questions:
      • 1. Does the FTC treat persistent identifiers, such as the non-resettable device hardware identifiers discussed in the IDAC report, as personally identifiable information in relation to its general consumer data security and privacy enforcement authorities under Section 5 of the FTC Act?  
      • 2. Is the FTC currently investigating or does it plan to investigate Premom’s consumer data collection, transmission, and processing conduct described in the IDAC report to determine if the company has engaged in deceptive practices?
      • 3. Does the FTC plan to take any steps to educate users of the Premom app that the app may still be sharing their personal data without their permission if they have not updated the app? If not, does the FTC plan to require Premom to conduct such outreach?
      • 4. Please describe any unique or practically uncommon uses of encryption by the involved third-party companies receiving information from Premom that could be functionally interpreted to obfuscate oversight of the involved data transmissions.
      • 5. How can the FTC use its Section 5 authority to ensure that mobile apps are not deceiving consumers about their data collection and sharing practices and to preempt future potentially deceptive practices like those Premom may have engaged in?

Further Reading

  • Justice Dept. Plans to File Antitrust Charges Against Google in Coming Weeks” By Katie Benner and Cecilia Kang – The New York Times; “The Justice Department could file a lawsuit against Google this month, overriding skepticism from its own top lawyers” By Tonty Romm – The Washington Post; “There’s a partisan schism over the timing of a Google antitrust lawsuit” By Timothy B. Lee – Ars Technica. The New York Times explains in its deeply sourced article that United States Department of Justice (DOJ) attorneys want more time to build a better case against Google, but that Attorney General William Barr is pressing for the filing of a suit as early as the end of this month in order for the Trump Administration to show voters it is taking on big tech. Additionally, a case against a tech company would help shore up the President’s right flank as he and other prominent conservatives continue to insist in the absence of evidence that technology companies are biased against the right. The team of DOJ attorneys has shrunk from 40 to about 20 as numerous lawyers asked off the case once it was clear what the Attorney General wanted. These articles also throw light on to the split between Republican and Democratic state attorneys general in the case they have been working on with the former accusing the latter of stalling for time in the hopes a Biden DOJ will be harsher on the company and the latter accusing the former of trying to file a narrow case while Donald Trump is still President that would impair efforts to address the range of Google’s alleged antitrust abuses.
  • Facebook Moves to Limit Election Chaos in November” By Mike Isaac – The New York Times. The social network giant unveiled measures to fight misinformation the week before the United States election and afterwards should people try to make factually inaccurate claims about the results. Notably, political advertisements will be banned a week before the 3 November election, but this seems like pretty weak tea considering it will be business as usual until late October. Even though the company frames these moves as “additional steps we’re taking to help secure the integrity of the U.S. elections by encouraging voting, connecting people to authoritative information, and reducing the risks of post-election confusion,” the effect of misinformation, disinformation, and lies that proliferate on Facebook will have likely already taken root by late October. It is possible the company still wants the advertising revenue it would forgo if it immediately banned political advertising. Another proposed change is to provide accurate information about voting generally and COVID-19 and voting. In fact, the platform corrected a post of President Donald Trump’s that expressed doubts about mail-in voting.
  • Washington firm ran fake Facebook accounts in Venezuela, Bolivia and Mexico, report finds” By Craig Timberg and Elizabeth Dwoskin – The Washington Post. In tandem with taking down fake content posted by the Internet Research Agency, Facebook also removed accounts traced back to a Washington, D.C. public relations firm, CLS Strategies, that was running multiple accounts to support the government in Bolivia and the opposition party in Venezuela, both of which are right wing. Using information provided by Facebook, Stanford University’s Internet Observatory released a report stating that “Facebook removed a network of 55 Facebook accounts,4 2 Pages and 36 Instagram accounts attributed to the US-based strategic communications firm CLS Strategies for engaging in coordinated inauthentic behavior (CIB).” Stanford asserted these key takeaways:
    • 11 Facebook pages related to Bolivia mainly supported Bolivia’s Interim President Jeanine Áñez and disparaged Bolivia’s former president Evo Morales. All had similar creation dates and manager location settings.
    • Venezuela-focused assets supported and promoted Venezuelan opposition leaders but changed in tone in 2020, reflecting factional divides in the opposition and a turn away from Juan Guaidó.
    • In addition to fake accounts, removed Facebook accounts include six profiles that match the names and photos of CLS Strategies employees listed publicly on their website and appear to be their real accounts.
    • CLS Strategies has a disclosed contract with the Bolivian government to provide strategic communications counsel for Bolivia’s 2020 elections and to strengthen democracy and human rights in Bolivia.
    • Coordinated inauthentic behavior reports from Facebook and Twitter have increasingly included assets linked to marketing and PR firms originating and acting around the world. The firms’ actions violate the platforms’ terms by operating internationally and failing to identify their origins and motivations to users.
    • In its release on the issue, Facebook explained:
      • In August, we removed three networks of accounts, Pages and Groups. Two of them — from Russia and the US — targeted people outside of their country, and another from Pakistan focused on both domestic audiences in Pakistan and also in India. We have shared information about our findings with law enforcement, policymakers and industry partners.
  • Belarusian Officials Shut Down Internet With Technology Made by U.S. Firm” By Ryan Gallagher – Bloomberg. A United States firm, Sandvine, sold deep packet inspection technology to the government in Belarus through a Russian intermediary. The technology was ostensibly to be used by the government to fend off dangers to the nation’s networks but was instead deployed to shut down numerous social media and news sites on the internet the day of the election. However, Belarusian activists quickly determined how to use workarounds, launching the current unrest that threatens to topple the regime. The same company’s technology has been used elsewhere in the world to cut off access to the internet as detailed by the University of Toronto’s Citizen Lab in 2018.
  • Canada has effectively moved to block China’s Huawei from 5G, but can’t say so” – Reuters. In a move reminiscent of how the People’s Republic of China (PRC) tanked Qualcomm’s proposed purchase of NXP Semiconductors in 2018, Canada has effectively barred Huawei from its 5G networks by not deciding, which eventually sent a signal to its telecommunications companies to use Ericsson and Nokia instead. This way, there is no public announcement or policy statement the PRC can object to, and the country toes the line with its other Five Eyes partners that have banned Huawei in varying degrees. Additionally, given that two Canadian nationals are being held because Huawei Chief Financial Officer Meng Wanzhou is being detained in Canada awaiting extradition to the Unted States to face criminal charges, Ottawa needs to manage its relations with the PRC gingerly.

© Michael Kans, Michael Kans Blog and michaelkans.blog, 2019-2020. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Michael Kans, Michael Kans Blog, and michaelkans.blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Image by Simon Steinberger from Pixabay

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